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Depression or pathological sadness is a affective disorder, which causes feelings of sadness or loss of hope for a long time.
Depression manifests itself differently from person to person. Some feel “knocked down” for a long time, while in others feelings of depression come and go.

Causes of depression are varied, from a genetic predisposition to stressful life events, medical conditions, taking medications or other factors that cause an imbalance within the person.

Psychiatric diagnostic manual DSM determines the following classification of depressive disorders:

1.Major depressive disorder – is characterized by a combination of symptoms, including feelings of sadness that interferes with the ability to work, sleep, eat and ability to enjoy once pleasurable activities.

Symptoms of major depression:

  • Permanent feelings of sadness, irritability or tension;
  • Decreased interest in usual activities or hobbies;
  • Loss of energy, fatigue in the absence of strenuous activities;
  • Feeling worthless, helpless or guilt;
  • Loss or weight gain, appetite changes;
  • Anxiety;
  • Changing patterns of sleep, difficulty falling asleep, insomnia, too
    much sleep;
  • Difficulty concentrating;
  • Suicidal thoughts or thoughts about death.

2. Dysthymic disorder – People with dysthymic may experience
mild depression or depression for at least 2 years.


  • Depressed mood most of the day, children and adolescents
    may be irritable (without being in a severe depressive episode);
  • Decreased appetite or excessive eating;
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia;
  • Low energy;
  • Low self esteem;
  • Reduced ability to concentrate or difficulty making decisions;
  • Feelings of despair.

3. Depressive disorder without further specification – includes disorders with
depressive elements that do not meet the criteria for major depressive disorder or
dysthymic disorder.

We add:

Postpartum depression – can affect women after childbirth.

Is divided into three types:

  • “Sadness of the child” (baby blues) affect women after giving birth. The mother can have mood swings, at one time very happy and then very sad. May complain about anything, feel irritable, anxious, sad and lonely.
  • postpartum depression, which occurs every few days or months after childbirth. Post-partum depression can occur at every birth, and not only the birth of the first child. The mother has feelings of sadness, despair, anxiety and irritability.
  • post-partum psychosis, which is a very serious disease, which occurs rarely. It usually occurs in the first three months after birth. Depression is associated with loss of sense of reality, auditory hallucinations, delusions, visual hallucinations. Other symptoms include post-partum psychosis insomnia, agitation, anger, feelings and strange behavior.

Old age depression – this is determined in most cases by the retirement of a person from social activities, by physiological and psychological changes, all of these are accompanied by a fear of death and regret regarding the happier times in one’s personal life.